清洁供暖市场前景广阔,做好还要抓住关键点

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近日,记者从国家节能中心了解到,中国、丹麦正联合为陕西省铜川市提出区域能源及节能改造综合性规划方案,预计在6月底前完成对数据资料的分析和完善,改造完成后,将作为中丹清洁供热合作的典型案例进行推广。

近年来,国家高度重视清洁供暖,相关政策频出,并构建了从中央到地方的奖励体系,行业多位专家表示,我国清洁能源供暖仍任重道远。

 

市场巨大

“在供热供暖领域,清洁能源替代污染的散煤燃烧是解决大气污染的重大举措。我国积极推进可再生能源清洁供暖,启动了一批风电供暖示范工程,加大生物质能供热技术项目推广应用,启动了一批地热、风能供暖项目。”国家能源局新能源司副司长梁志鹏在“2018中丹可再生能源清洁供热高峰论坛”上表示。

风电供暖早在7年前在吉林进行试点,已在新疆、山西、内蒙古等地已经开展了众多风电供暖项目,建立了政府、电网企业、风电企业和供暖企业四方交易机制,全国风电供热面积总计达500万平方米。

生物质能是为中小城市提供供热,解决散煤污染的重要措施。今年1月,我国启动了全国“百个城镇”生物质热电联产县域清洁供热示范项目,136个示范工程供暖面积将达到9000万平方米。

地热供暖包括地热水的直接供暖,还包括地源热泵、水源热泵和空气源热泵,雄安新区已成为地热供暖重要试点,北京周边的农村也在大量推广空气热泵。

按照10部委联合下发的《北方地区冬季清洁供暖规划(2017—2021年)》,我国清洁取暖率要在2019年达到50%,2021年达到70%,其中可再生能源供暖的目标是地热10亿平方米、生物质21亿平方米、太阳能5000万平方米。

国家发改委能源研究所相关报告显示,我国可再生能源供热“量大面广,市场巨大”,2017年我国可再生能源供热利用量为7484万吨标准煤,其中太阳能达到5734万吨标准煤,地热达到1250万吨标准煤,生物质能500万吨标准煤。

 “地热能成为供热市场增长的主力,太阳能自2014年市场连续下滑,年均降幅超过15%,生物质能近两年来有所增长,但总体来讲,与目标差距较大。”国家发改委能源研究所相关人士告诉记者。

提高能效是关键

“供热是人民生活和众多生产活动的基本能源需求,在全球终端能源消费中供热占 50%左右。”中国生物质能源产业联盟理事长陈小平告诉记者,全球越来越多的国家和地区将可再生能源供热纳入地区能源发展的总体战略和规划。

丹麦是世界上能源效率最高的国家之一,区域供热被视为丹麦绿色转型的基石,2013年起,中丹两国政府就在清洁供热方面进行了密切合作,签署系列备忘录和合作纲要,推动清洁供暖发展。

“63%的丹麦家庭通过区域供热采暖并获得热水,约60%的电力来自热电联产。区域供热和热电联产系统的高效性和灵活性,是丹麦2050年摆脱对化石燃料依赖的关键。”丹麦能源气候和建筑部长Lars Chr.lilleholt认为,不同供热方案的综合分析显示,区域供热在许多地域是最好的解决办法,丹麦还因此通过了相关供热法案。

“区域供热和热电联产的广泛使用,是提高能源利用效率、减少能源消耗、降低碳排放的重要手段。”丹麦能源公用事业与气候变化部相关人士介绍,德国也约有14%的用户在区域供热系统中,并将继续扩建相关基础设施。

国家节能中心数据显示,我国北方地区城镇采暖面积达120亿平方米,其中城镇集中供热面积为71亿平方米,采暖用能超过1.8亿吨标准煤(燃煤约占90%)。“北京冬季供暖大部分仍旧是集中供暖,按平米收费,节能的热情自然不会太高。”丹佛斯供热事业部中国亚太及印度区总裁于泳溟坦言,我国仍旧以集中供暖为主,但在努力推进供热计量改革。

如何提高能效?“需要针对性的解决办法,一些供暖技术已具备竞争力,但仍需要政策支持。好产品是基础,系统设计是关键,要能与常规能源系统互补运行,实现经济性的优化和准确的热力计量。”一位不愿具名的人士告诉记者。

生物质受期待

 “从生物质能特性以及国外实践来看,清洁供热是生物质能的最优方向,无论是生物质热电联产,还是以生物质原料、成型燃料、生物质燃气等为燃料的锅炉供热,生物质能具有先天的优势。”陈小平分析。据测算,中国可再生能源潜力可达 30 亿吨标准煤以上,单是可作为能源利用的农作物秸秆及农产品加工剩余物、林业剩余物和能源作物、生活垃圾与有机废弃物等生物质资源年供热潜力将折合4.6亿吨标准煤。

近两年,生物质能利用率也呈上升趋势。今年一季度,全国生物质发电新增装机99万千瓦,累计装机达到1575万千瓦,同比增长24%;发电量178.6亿千瓦时,同比增长19.1%。

“国家有关部门始终没有明确生物质发电、供热行业的排放标准,造成一些项目审批工作困难。”一行业人士告诉记者,生物质仍旧面临排放标准不明、依赖发电补贴、供热盈利模式尚处探索阶段等问题。

针对近期引起光伏行业“巨震”的“531新政”,该人士认为这是一个“警示”,生物质能源要突出环保民生属性,亟需加快由单纯发电转向生物质热电联产或生物质供热(冷)方向转变,再向综合能源服务方向升级,向供热为主、发电为辅的运营模式转型。“期待生物质能在清洁供热、大气污染防治、精准扶贫和解决民生问题上有更大作为,北欧四国的生物质能供热经验值得我们学习和研究。”他说。

文 | 董欣    中国能源报记者

来源:中国能源报

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